“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.”
― Mahatma Gandhi

“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”
― Nelson Mandela

“All these people talk so eloquently about getting back to good old-fashioned values. Well, as an old poop I can remember back to when we had those old-fashioned values, and I say let's get back to the good old-fashioned First Amendment of the good old-fashioned Constitution of the United States -- and to hell with the censors! Give me knowledge or give me death!”
― Kurt Vonnegut

BE-Computer Science Engineering

Father of computing

Charles Babbage is considered to be the father of computing after his invention and concept of the Analytical Engine in 1837. The Analytical Engine contained an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), basic flow control, and integrated memory and is the first general-purpose computer concept. Unfortunately, because of funding issues this computer was never built while Charles Babbage's was alive. However, in 1910 Henry Babbage, Charles Babbage's youngest son was able to complete a portion of this machine and was able to perform basic calculations. In addition, in 1991, the London Science Museum completed a working version of the Analytical Engine No 2, which incorporated his refinements Babbage discovered during his initial development of the Analytical Engine. Although Babbage never completed his invention in his life time, his radical ideas and concepts of the computer are what make him the father of computing.

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Father of the computer

There are several people who could be considered as the father of the computer including Alan Turing, John Atanasoff, and John von Neumann. However, for the purpose of this document we're going to be considering Konrad Zuse as the father of the computer with his development of the Z1, Z2, Z3, and Z4 computers. In 1936 to 1938 Konrad Zuse created Z1 in his parents living room, this computer consisted of over 30,000 metal parts and is considered to be the first electro-mechanical binary programmable computer. Later in 1939, the German military commissioned Zuse to build the Z2, which was largely based on the Z1. Later, he completed the Z3 in May of 1941, the Z3 was a revolutionary computer for its time and is considered the first electromechanical and program-controlled computer. Finally, on July 12, 1950 Zuse completed and shipped the Z4 computer, which is considered to be the first commercial computer.

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Father of the personal computer

Henry Edward Roberts coined the term "personal computer" and is considered to be the father of personal computers after he released of the Altair 8800 on December 19, 1974. It was later published on the front cover of Popular Electronics in 1975 making it almost instantly a huge success. The computer was available as a kit for $439 or assembled for $621 and had several additional add-ons such as a memory board and interface boards. By August 1975 over 5,000 Altair 8800 personal computers were sold and started the personal computer revolution.

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History Of Computer

Computers have evolved out of physical aids for mathematical computations. There is no clear cut distinction between what constitutes a computer and what is just a calculator or calculating device. However many experts consider Mark I built in 1944 as the first real computer ever built. Prior to development of Mark I the history of development of various computing devices can be traced back to about 2500 years when abacus was developed. Between development of abacus and Mark I there were many different types of computing aids conceived, developed and used.
Some more prominent ones of these are described below.

1.Napier bones developed by John Napier in1617. This was further improved as slide rule, which were widely used till Twentieth century. NASA used slide rules till 1960's.

2.Leonardo de Vinci (1452 - 1519) conceived a gear driven calculating machine. Subsequently gear driven calculating machine was built by Schicard in 1623, and by Paskal in 1642. A few years later Later the famous mathematician, built a calculating machine that used fluted drum rather than gears.

3.Punched cards system developed by Jacquard in 1801, for incorporating different designs in the weave of power looms are not really devices for mathematical computing, but these have substantially influenced the design and building of modern computers.

4.In 1822 Charles Babbage designed and tried to build a steam powered calculating machines. This machine could never worked. However many experts describe it as first computer.

5.1885 first workable adding and listing machine was patented by William Steward Burrows. Subsequent to this many different types of mechanical, electrical and electronic calculators were developed, manufactured and used. Sophisticated electronic calculators are still very popular. One example of their popularity is the calculator function incorporated in operating systems of personal computers today.

6.Hollerith Desk was developed and used for computing the results of US census o5 1890. This machine was subsequently manufactured and sold commercially by a company formed by Hollerith. This company called Tabulating Machine Company, later became IBM. This organization played a very important part in continuously improving these devices and popularising them.

Mark I was designed and built by Howard Aikens jointly with IBM for the U.S. Army. It used punched tape as input, and was completely mechanical. The first electronic computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) built between 1943 1nd 1945 by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert. This was also developed for the S.S. Army. Mauchy and Eckert followed this up with building of EDVAC, the first computer with stored program. This was built with help of Neuman. With success of ENIAC many other computes with similar sounding names such as ILLIAC, JHONNIAC and MANIAC were developed by different people. The first commercially produced computer with stored programs was UNIVAC manufactured in 1950's by a company started by Eckert and Mauchy. This computer used magnetic tape for data input. We can say that the basic design of computers ws well developed with Univac. Subsequent to this have all been in the form of improving performance, reducing size, and reducing cost. Improved performance has also resulted from improved input and output devices and from software development.